EHEDG Guidelines
EHEDG & 3-A

 

Harmonization of EHEDG guidelines and 3-A standards

Aiming to enhance food safety by promoting hygiene in the production and processing of food, EHEDG and the U.S. American 3-A Sanitary Standards organization have many common goals and a similar mission. Both organizations exchange their draft guidelines and standards for expert review and comments before publication. The latest issue of the EHEDG Glossary was developed in co-operation with 3-A and can be downloaded from the Free Documents section.

Matrix

The contents of all EHEDG guidelines have been cross-referenced with those of 3-A Standards Inc. and are summarized in a matrix available for download (XLS).

Free documents

The EHEDG Working Groups have published various documents which are available for free download such as position papers and Guideline Doc. 8 on the basic requirements of hygienic design.

More information.

Guidelines

Assurance of quality and safety is an essential need for the continued good reputation of foodstuffs. The correct hygienic design and maintenance of food production systems is considered as a prerequisite to fulfill these requirements.

In order to offer help to the industry in these questions, EHEDG has developed and published a variety of practical guidance documents on adequate hygienic design in different areas of food production equipment and machinery, as well as on the food manufacturing infrastructure. Titles available are listed below, while others are currently in progress to complement the EHEDG document series.

The following list of guidelines is regularly updated and completed by new documents in various language versions. The search function can be used to look for keywords mentioned in the guideline titles. Further information about individual guideline contents opens up when clicking onto a selected title.

Guideline download and order information

NOTE: Reproduction or further distribution of the EHEDG guidelines is strictly prohibited! All documents downloaded or purchased are intended to be exclusively used by the EHEDG Member or the guideline customer.

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Doc. Title
G
EHEDG Glossary
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P
EHEDG Position Paper

"Easy cleanable Pipe couplings and Process connections" Version 4, July 2017

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1
Continuous Pasteurization of Liquid Food

Second Edition, May 2017 - Pasteurization is a heat treatment aimed at reducing the number of harmful microorganisms to a level at which they do not constitute a significant health hazard. There are however many reasons why, in practice pasteurized products may present a microbiological health hazard. Due to the pasteurizer process design, the operation and control or inspection and maintenance of the pasteurizer there are a risk of unpasteurized or recontaminated product may reach the consumer. This document provides guidelines to avoid these issues.

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2
A method for assessing the in-place cleanability of food processing equipment

Third Edition, July 2004, updated June 2007 - The method is intended as a screening test for hygienic equipment design and is not indicative of the performance of industrial cleaning processes (which depend on the type of soil). See Doc 15 for a test procedure designed for moderately sized equipment.

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3
Microbiologically safe aseptic packing of food products

First Edition, January 1993 - This guideline stresses the need to identify the sources of micro-organisms that may contaminate food in the packaging process, and to determine which contamination rates are acceptably low. It clarifies the difference in risk of infection between aseptic processing and aseptic packing and recommends that aseptic packing machines be equipped with fillers that are easily cleanable, suitable for decontamination and bacteria-tight. Requirements for the machine interior include monitoring of critical decontamination parameters. See also Doc 21 on challenge tests.

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4
A method for the assessment of in-line pasteurisation of food processing equipment

NOTE: Document was withdrawn in March 2016

5
A method for the assessment of in-line sterilisability of food processing equipment

Second Edition, July 2004 - Food processing equipment may need to be sterilised before use, and it is important to ensure that the sterilisation method applied is effective. Thus, it is necessary to determine under which conditions equipment can be sterilised. This paper details the recommended procedure for assessing the suitability of an item of food processing equipment for in-line sterilisation. It is advisable to conduct in-place cleanability trials (see Doc 2) prior to this test in order to verify the hygienic design of the equipment.

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6
Continuous UHT Sterilization of Liquid Food

Second Edition, May 2017 - Sterilization is a heat treatment aimed at destroying all vegetative microorganisms and spores to create a product which can be stored at ambient temperature yet minimizing public health hazard. There are however many reasons why, in practice sterilized products may present a microbiological health hazard. Due to the sterilizer process design, the operation and control or inspection and maintenance of the sterilizer there are a risk of untreated or recontaminated product may reach the consumer. This document provides guidelines to avoid these issues.

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7
A method for the assessment of bacteria-tightness of food processing equipment

Second Edition, July 2004 - This document details the test procedure for assessing whether an item of food processing equipment, intended for aseptic operation, is impermeable to micro-organisms. Small motile bacteria penetrate far more easily through microscopic passages than (non-motile) moulds and yeast. The facultative anaerobic bacterium Serratia marcescens (CBS 291.93) is therefore used to test bacteria-tightness or the impermeability of equipment to micro-organisms. The method is suitable for equipment that is already known to be in-line steam sterilisable (see also Doc 5).

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8
Hygienic equipment design criteria

Second Edition, April 2004 - This guideline describes the criteria for the hygienic design of equipment intended for the processing of foods. Its fundamental objective is the prevention of the microbial contamination of food products. It is intended to appraise qualified engineers who design equipment for food processing with the additional demands of hygienic engineering in order to ensure the microbiological safety of the end product. Upgrading an existing design to meet hygiene requirements can be prohibitively expensive and may be unsuccessful and so these are most effectively incorporated into the initial design stage. The long term benefits of doing so are not only product safety but also increased life expectancy of equipment, reduced maintenance and consequently lower operating costs. This document, first published in 1993, describes in more detail the hygienic requirements of the Machinery Directive (2006/42/EC ref. 1). Parts of it have subsequently been incorporated in the standards EN 1672-2 and EN ISO 14159. The document can be downloaded from the Free Documents section in various language versions.

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9
Welding stainless steel to meet hygienic requirements

First Edition, July 1993 - This document describes the techniques required to produce hygienically acceptable welds in thin walled (<3 mm) stainless steel applications. The main objective was to convey the reasons and requirements for hygienic welding and to provide information on how this may best be achieved. This document is superseded by Doc 35, recently published. The subgroup will continue with a guideline on inspection of the quality of welds in food processing machinery.

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10
Hygienic design of closed equipment for the processing of liquid food

Second Edition, May 2007 - Using the general criteria for the hygienic design of equipment identified in Doc 8, this paper illustrates the application of these criteria in the construction and fabrication of closed process equipment. Examples, with drawings, show how to avoid crevices, shadow zones and areas with stagnating product, and how to connect and position equipment in a process line to ensure unhampered draining and cleaning in-place. Attention is drawn to ways of preventing problems with joints, which might otherwise cause leakage or contamination of product.

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11
Hygienic packing of food products

First Edition, December 1993 - Products with a short shelf life, or whose shelf life is extended by cold storage or in-pack heat treatments, do not have to conform to such strict microbiological requirements as aseptically packaged foods (Doc 3 discusses aseptic packing). This paper discusses the packing of food products that do not need aseptic packing but which nevertheless need to be protected against unacceptable microbial contamination. It describes guidelines for the hygienic design of packing machines, the handling of packing materials and the environment of the packing machines. See also Doc 21.

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12
The continuous or semi-continuous flow thermal treatment of particulate foods

First Edition, March 1994 - Thermal sterilisation is a process aimed at eliminating the risk of food poisoning and, when used in conjunction with aseptic filling, it aims to extend product storage life under ambient conditions. This is achieved by the destruction of vegetative micro-organisms and relevant bacterial spores. Liquid foods containing particulates are inherently more difficult to process than homogenous liquids due to heat transfer limitations in particulate liquid mixtures and the additional problems of transport and handling. This paper presents guidelines on the design of continuous and semicontinuous plants for the heat treatment of particulate foods. Ohmic heating techniques are not covered. See also Doc 1 on continuous pasteurisation and Doc 6 on sterilisation of liquid products without particles.

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13
Hygienic design of equipment for open processing

Second Edition, May 2004 - It is important that the plant design takes into account factors affecting the hygienic operation and cleanability of the plant. The risk of contamination of food products during open processing increases with the concentration of micro-organisms in the environment and their opportunity to grow in poorly designed equipment. This means that in open plants, environmental conditions, in addition to appropriate equipment design, have an important influence on hygienic operation. The type of product and the stage of the manufacturing process must also be taken into consideration. This paper deals with the principal hygienic requirements for equipment for open processing and applies to many different types, including machines for the preparation of dairy products, alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks, sweet oils, coffee products, cereals, vegetables, fruit, bakery products, meat and fish. It describes methods of construction and fabrication, giving examples as to how the principal criteria can be met. See also guidelines on hygienic design criteria (Doc 8), hygienic welding (Doc 9), and the hygienic design of equipment for closed processing (Doc 10).

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14
Hygienic design of valves for food processing

Second Edition, July 2004 - Valves are essential components of all food processing plants and the quality used strongly influences the microbiological safety of the food production process. These valves must therefore comply with strict hygienic requirements. The guidelines apply to all valves used in contact with food or food constituents that are to be processed hygienically or aseptically. Aside from general requirements with regard to materials, drainability, microbial impermeability and other aspects, additional requirements for specific valve types are also described. See also Doc 20 on double-seat mixproof valves.

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15
A method for the assessment of in-place cleanability of moderately sized food processing equipment

NOTE: Document was withdrawn in March 2016

16
Hygienic pipe couplings

First Edition, September 1997 - This paper identifies and defines critical design parameters for welded pipe couplings: easily cleanable in-place; easily sterilisable in place; impervious to micro-organisms, reliable and easy to install. Gaskets of various types were tested for reliability and hygienic aspects using EHEDG cleanability test methods and repeated sterilisation. The objective was to provide a reliable dismountable joint which is bacteria-tight at the product side under the conditions of processing, cleaning and sanitation.

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17
Hygienic design of pumps, homogenizers and dampening devices

Third Edition, April 2013 - This updated guideline is meant to specify the technical requirements of pumps, homogenizers and dampening devices including their hygienic application in order to ensure a safe processing and production of food under hygienic conditions. The requirements described in the guideline apply to all pumps intended for the use in safe food processing, including centrifugal pumps, piston pumps, lobe rotor pumps, peristaltic pumps, diaphragm pumps, progressive cavity pumps, screw pumps as well as to homogenizers and dampening devices.

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18
Chemical Treatment of Stainless Steel Surfaces

Second Edition, January 2014 - This guideline issued in January 2014 replaces Doc. 18 “Passivation of Stainless Steel” (1998) and includes new sections on pickling and electropolishing of stainless steels. Chemical surface treatments such as pickling, passivation and electropolishing can help to assure the successful functional and corrosion-resistant performance of stainless steels for product contact surfaces in the food and beverage industry. This document explains the general principles of those three processes above: Why they are necessary, when and how they should be applied, how they work and which chemicals are used.

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19
A method for assessing the bacterial impermeability of hydrophobic membrane filters

Second Edition, June 2012 - Research has shown that hydrophobic membrane filters, with a pore size of 0.22 mm, do not retain micro-organisms under all process conditions. Investigations were conducted in risk assessment of sterilising hydrophobic membrane filters, evaluating the performance of the filters under a range of operating conditions. To validate the bacterial retention ability of sterilising grade hydrophobic membrane filters, a bacterial aerosol challenge test methodology was developed.

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20
Hygienic design and safe use of double-seat mixproof valves

First Edition, July 2000 - This document describes the basic hygienic design and safe use of single-body double-seat mixproof valves. Today, food process plants incorporate various multifunctional flow paths. Often one piping system is cleaned while another still contains product. This simultaneous cleaning can potentially result in the dangerous situation where product and cleaning liquid are separated by just one single valve seat. Any cleaning liquid that leaks across such a seat will contaminate the product. Therefore, often two or three single seat valves in a "block-and-bleed" arrangement are applied.

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21
Challenge tests for the evaluation of the hygienic characteristics of packing machines for liquid and semi-liquid products

First Edition, July 2000 - After documents 3 and 11, this is the third test method in the series. It discusses how packing machines should be designed to comply with hygiene design criteria and thereby with the requirements specified in Annex 1 of the Machinery Directive. To determine whether those criteria are met requires validation of the design and measurement of essential parameters. Proven methods for testing the performance of the various functions of packing machines are described.

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22
General hygienic design criteria for the safe processing of dry particulate materials

Second Edition, March 2014 - Dry food processing and handling requires equipment that are different from those typically associated with wet and liquid products. This is the first in a series of documents that go beyond equipment design and covers installation and associated practices. In the case of dry materials, other considerations include material lump formation, creation of dust explosion conditions, high moisture deposit, formation in the presence of hot air, and material remaining in the equipment after shutdown. Appropriate cleaning procedures are described, dry cleaning being favoured to reduce risks of contamination.

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23 P1
Use of food-grade lubricants, Part 1

Second Edition, May 2009 - Lubricants, grease and oil are necessary components for the lubrication, heat transfer, power transmission and corrosion protection of machinery, machine parts, instruments and equipment. Incidental contact between lubricants and food cannot always be fully excluded and may result in contamination of the food product. This risk applies to all lubricants equally. PART 1 of this guideline covers the hazards that may occur when using food grade lubricants and describes the actions and activities required to eliminate them or to reduce their impact or occurrence to an acceptable level. PART 2 of this guideline lays down the general requirements and recommendations for the hygienic manufacturing and supply of food-safe lubricants.

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23 P2
Production of food-grade lubricants, Part 2

Second Edition, May 2009 - Lubricants, grease and oil are necessary components for the lubrication, heat transfer, power transmission and corrosion protection of machinery, machine parts, instruments and equipment. Incidental contact between lubricants and food cannot always be fully excluded and may result in contamination of the food product. This risk applies to all lubricants equally. PART 1 of this guideline covers the hazards that may occur when using food grade lubricants and describes the actions and activities required to eliminate them or to reduce their impact or occurrence to an acceptable level. PART 2 of this guideline lays down the general requirements and recommendations for the hygienic manufacturing and supply of food-safe lubricants.

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24
The prevention and control of Legionella spp. (incl legionnaires disease) in food factories

First Edition, August 2002 - The guidelines summarise the best practice for controlling Legionella in water systems. It consists of two parts, namely, Management Practices and Guidance on the Control of Legionella spp. in Water Systems. The first section describes a management programme: risk identification and assessment; risk management (incl personnel responsibilities); preventing or controlling risk of exposure to the bacteria; and record keeping. The second part provides guidance on the design and construction of hot and cold water systems as well as the management and monitoring of these systems. Water treatment programmes, with attention to cleaning and disinfection, are also discussed.

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25
Design of mechanical seals for hygienic and aseptic applications

First Edition, August 2002 - This guideline compares the design aspects of different mechanical seals with respect to ease of cleaning, microbial impermeability, sterilisability or pasteurisability. It can serve as a guide for suppliers and users of this important component. Using EHEDG definitions, mechanical seals are classified according to use in the food industry into three categories: Aseptic, Hygienic equipment Class I, and Hygienic Equipment Class II. Both single and dual mechanical seals fall under the first two categories, which by definition, are subject to more stringent hygienic demands. General design criteria and basic material requirements for food applications are explained. Materials covered include carbon-graphite, ceramics, elastomers and metals. Hygienic implications of seal elements and components are also discussed. Finally, installation requirements are described and illustrated, taking into account the product environment side, the flushing side and the cartridge design.

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26
Hygienic engineering of plants for the processing of dry particulate materials

NOTE: Document was withdrawn in March 2016. Doc. 26 has been integrated into Doc. 44.

27
Safe storage and distribution of water in food factories

First Edition, April 2004 - Water is a vital medium used for many different purposes in the food industry. Systems for storing and distributing water can involve hazards, which could cause water quality to fall below acceptable standards. It is therefore critical to ensure that water storage and distribution in a food manufacturing operation takes place in a controlled, safe way. This guideline summarizes the best practice for three water categories used in the food industry: product water, domestic water and utility water. See also Doc 24.

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28
Safe and hygienic water treatment in food factories

First Edition, December 2004 - This guideline summarizes the best practice for the management and operation of water storage and distribution systems in a food manufacturing plant. System requirements are described for three categories of water used: domestic, product and utility water. The product water distribution system within the plant must be hygienically designed. Water storage tanks should be enclosed, fitted with an air vent and a backflow prevention device and be completely drainable.

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29
Hygienic design of packing systems for solid foodstuffs

First Edition, December 2004 - This document addresses packing systems of solid food products and supplements earlier guidelines. Solid food is characterised as having a water activity of >0.97, low acid, not pasteurised or sterilised after packaging, and distributed through the cool chain. Examples include fresh meat and some meat products, cheeses, ready meals, cut vegetables, etc. Hygiene requirements of the packaging operations, machinery as well as personnel, are described and reference is made to the American Meat Institute's principles of sanitary design. See also Docs 3 and 11.

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30
Guidelines on air handling in the food industry

NOTE: Document was withdrawn in September 2016. Doc. 30 was integrated into Doc. 47.

31
Hygienic engineering of fluid bed and spray dryer plants

First Edition, May 2005 - Starting from the basics with regard to design, construction materials, layout, and zone classification of the drying systems to meet hygienic requirements, this paper outlines component design aspects of the processing chamber, with particular attention to the atomization assembly and the distribution grids for fluidization. Systems for both supply and exhaust air should operate in a hygienic manner and recommendations for the use and installation of various types of filters are listed. Finally, operational aspects, including sampling, control and general housekeeping are briefly discussed.

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32
Materials of construction for equipment in contact with food

First Editon, August 2005 - This guideline aims to offer a practical handbook for those responsible for the specification, design and manufacture of food processing equipment. It offers guidance on the ways in which materials may behave such that they can be selected and used as effectively as possible. The properties and selection procedures with regard to metals, elastomers and plastics are covered in detail. Potential failure mechanisms and influences of manufacturing processes are also discussed. A more general overview of composites, ceramics and glass and materials is provided. The guideline can serve as an aide-memoir during the design process, so that equipment manufacturers and endusers can together ensure that all aspects of materials behaviour are taken into account in designing safe, hygienic, reliable and efficient equipment which can be operated, maintained and managed economically.

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33
Hygienic engineering of discharging systems for dry particulate materials

First Edition, September 2005 - The introduction of the product into the processing system is a key step in maintaining the sanitation and integrity of the entire process. Discharging systems are designed to transfer, in this case dry solids, from one system into another without powder spillage, contamination or environmental pollution. Many dry systems do not have any additional protective heating steps, as they are merely specialty blending processes. Therefore, any contamination that enters the system will appear in the finished product. Guidelines for the design of bag, big bag, container and truck discharging systems are presented. They are intended for use by persons involved in the design, sizing, and installation of bag, big bag and truck discharging systems operating under hygienic conditions.

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34
Integration of hygienic and aseptic systems

First Edition, March 2006 - This horizontal guideline is about the hygienically safe integration of hygienic (including aseptic) systems in a food production/processing facility. This document examines integration aspects that can affect hygienic design, installation, operation, automation, cleaning and maintenance and uses system flow charts and case studies describing the integration processes and decision steps. It does not provide detailed guidance on specific manufacturing processes, products, buildings or equipment.

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35
Hygienic welding of stainless steel tubing in the food processing industry

First Edition, July 2006 - Abundantly illustrated, this paper provides guidelines for the correct execution of one-axis hygienic (sanitary) welding between pipe segments, or between a tube and a control component (e.g. valve, flow meter, instrument tee, etc.). It deals with tube and pipe systems with less than 3.5 mm wall thickness, built in AISI 304(L) (1.4301, 1.4306 or 1.4307), 316(L) (1.4401, 1.4404 or 1.4435), 316Ti (1.4571) or 904L (1.4539) and their equivalents. The requirements for a weld destined for hygienic uses are first described, then the possible defects which can affect the weld are listed, and at the end the procedure for a state-of-the-art welding execution is illustrated, including preparation of pipe ends, final inspection and a trouble shooting guide. It mainly refers to the part of the weld in contact with the finished or intermediate product.

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36
Hygienic Engineering of Transfer Systems for Dry Particulate Materials

First Edition, June 2007 - In this document, hygienic transfer systems for transport of bulk materials within a food processing plant are described. This document also covers situations where transfer systems are used as a dosing procedure. In principle, the less the need for product transfer within a food processing plant, the easier it is to make a factory hygienically safe. Furthermore, with a minimum of product transfer between equipment, there are the added advantages of a more compact plant, lower energy consumption and reduced cleaning time. Less product handling results in less adverse effects on product properties. This guidelines are intended for use by persons involved in the design, technical specification, installation and use of transfer systems for dry bulk particulate materials operating under hygienic conditions.

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37
Hygienic Design and Application of Sensors

First Edition, November 2007 - This guideline is intended to advise both, sensor designers and manufacturers as well as those in charge of production machinery, plants and processes about the appropriate choice of sensors and the most suitable way for application in dry and wet processes. Sensors are crucial in the monitoring of the critical process steps as well as the CCP's as established by the HACCP study of the process. Therefore validation and calibration of sensors in time sequences are essential. This guideline applies to all sensors coming into contact with liquids and other products to be processed hygienically. However, it focuses upon sensors for the most common process parameters, particularly temperature, pressure, conductivity, flow, level, pH value, dissolved oxygen concentration and optical systems like turbidity or colour measurements. The objective is to provide a guideline clearly describing standard hygienic requirements and recommendations for sensors and corresponding process adaptations.

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38
Hygienic Engineering of Rotary Valves in Process Lines for Dry Particulate Materials

Second Editon, May 2017 - Rotary valves are widely used in the food processing industry for continuous discharging, metering and dosing of dry particulate materials from or into attached plant components. Such applications involve hygienic material handling and therefore only rotary valves of approved hygienic design should be used. This document describes the design and operational features of rotary valves that are of importance when rotary valves operate in a hygienic processing environment.

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39
Design Principles for Equipment and Process Areas for Aseptic Food Manufacturing

First Edition, June 2009 - In many areas there is an increasing demand for self stable products. However, microbial product contamination limits the shelf life of sensitive products which are not protected by any preservatives or stablised by their formulation. Products which fail this inherent protection have to be sterilised and in consequence, the equipment must be cleanable and sterilisable. Micro-organisms which are protected by product residues or biofilms are very difficult or impossible to inactivate and the same applies to process areas if resulting in a recontamination risk. This guideline is intended to describe the basic demands for equipment and process areas for aseptic food manufacturing.

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40
Hygienic Engineering of Valves in Process Lines for Dry Particulate Materials

First Edition, October 2010 - This Guideline describes in detail the hygienic requirements of butterfly valves, slide gate valves and ball segment valves. It also briefly mentions pinch-off valves, ball and plug valves as well as cone valves. The hygienic design requirements of rotary and diverter valves are subject of separate EHEDG Documents (Doc. 38 and 41).

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41
Hygienic Engineering of Diverter Valves in Process Lines for Dry Particulate Materials

First Edition, August 2011 - Every process plant is equipped with valves, which fulfil numerous functions. These include line shut-off, opening, change-over and control of product flow, while also giving protection against both excessive or insufficient pressure and intermixing of incompatible media at intersection points in the process line. Diverter valves are applied either when dry particulate material (product) flow has to be diverted into several directions during processing, or when product flow from different lines converges into one line. This Guideline deals with the hygienic aspects of diverter valve design.

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42
Disc Stack Centrifuges - Design and Cleanablility

First Edition, April 2013 - This guideline covers the hygienic aspects of disc stack centrifuges used to separate fractions of liquid food products or to remove dense solid matter from products. The hygienic operation of a disc stack centrifuge, which is a complex machine with the purpose of collecting non-milk-solids (NMS) or other solid matter from liquid products, relies on proper cleaning by CIP/COP. Therefore, this guideline deals with cleaning as well as design. The guideline does not cover cyclonic types of separators, decanters, basket centrifuges or other types of devices.

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43
Hygienic Design of Belt Conveyors for the Food Industry

First Edition, April 2016 - This document provides guidance to the hygienic design of belt conveyors specifically for use in an environment where wet cleaning is mandatory, and is supplementary to the general requirements and standards for hygienic equipment. The guidance is relevant where the foodstuff is in direct contact with the conveyor and also in areas where there is a hygienic risk from indirect contamination. Although applicable for use in all food production environments, care must be taken when using these guidelines in considering the actual conditions, product types and the hygienic risks of contamination. Similarly, where a dry application precludes the use of water and liquids in cleaning, different systems may be suited, as described in EHEDG guideline, document 22.

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44
Hygienic Design Principles for Food Factories

First Edition, September 2014 - This document provides those responsible for the design and construction of food factories with best hygienic practice guidelines. Following the advice in this document should, therefore, ensure that the building will be designed to the minimum hygienic building design standards that are applicable worldwide. Whilst primarily aimed at food manufacturing sites, this guidance is also applicable to food service buildings. This document does not consider any international or national building standards or safety standards (e.g. fire). It also does not cover hygiene within the construction process which is intended to be provided via EHEDG guidance on maintenance procedures. This document does, however, assume that buildings will be constructed following general civil engineering best practice as failures in the construction process will lead to potential unhygienic features related to hazard harbourage and the reduction of cleaning efficacy.

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45
Cleaning Validation in the Food Industry - General Principles, Part 1

First Edition, April 2016 - The objective of cleaning validation is to prove that the equipment is consistently cleaned of product, microbial residues, chemicals and soiling, including allergens to an acceptable level, to prevent possible cross-contamination of hazards between products. This document focuses on the overall concept of cleaning validation and is intended as a general guideline for use by food manufacturers and inspectors. It is not the intention to be prescriptive in specific validation requirements. This document serves as general guidance only, and the principles may be considered useful in their application in the production of safe food, and in the development of guidelines for the validation of specialized cleaning or inactivation processes.

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47
Guidelines on Air Handling Systems in the Food Industry - Air Quality Control for Building Ventilation

First Edition, September 2016 - These guidelines focus on air handling systems installed for food factory building ventilation and its air quality control. Supply systems for process air, compressed air and exhaust air systems such as grease filter systems or dust removal units are excluded from the scope of this document. These guidelines are intended to assist food producers in the design, selection, installation, and operation of air handling systems to meet the air quality and hygienic requirements of the food manufacturing process.

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49
Hygienic Design Requirements for Processing of Fresh Fish

The guideline is intended to provide guidance on hygienic design criteria for equipment manufacturers (when designing the equipment) and the plant for the fish industry (during the procurement process and installation, plant design and microbiological sampling). It stresses the current best practices in design of fish processing equipment and plant to highlight typical hazards and challenges of fish processing and emphasizes the importance of control of the environment.

This guideline does not cover other sources of hazards (air, water, personnel).

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